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Diseases

Asbestosis

Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. It occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to asbestos, e.g. in mining. Sufferers have severe dyspnea (shortness of breath) and are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer.

As clear explanations are not always stressed in non-technical literature, care should be taken to distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), these may defined as; asbestosis (the subject of this article), lung cancer, and mesothelioma (generally a very rare form of cancer, but increasing in frequency as people exposed to asbestos age).

Heart Attack

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted, causing death of heart tissue. It is the leading cause of death for both men and women all over the world.[1]

The term myocardial infarction is derived from myocardium (the heart muscle) and infarction (tissue death). The phrase "heart attack" sometimes refers to heart problems other than MI, such as unstable angina pectoris and sudden cardiac death.

Heart Valve Disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more valves of the heart. The valves in the right side of the heart are the tricuspid valve and the pulmonic valve. The valves in the left side of the heart are the mitral valve and the aortic valve.

Aortic insufficiency
Aortic valve stenosis
Endocarditis
Heart valve dysplasia
Loeffler endocarditis
Mitral regurgitation
Mitral stenosis
Mitral valve prolapse

Juvenile Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a form of diabetes mellitus.

Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as "childhood" or "juvenile" diabetes or "insulin dependent" diabetes) is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents. The adult incidence of Type 1 is the same as for children [1], leading to the name change from juvenile diabetes. Many adults diagnosed with Type 1 are misdiagnosed as Type 2 diabetics, leading to the misconception of Type 1 as a disease of children.

The most important forms of diabetes are due to decreases in or the complete absence of the production of insulin (type 1 diabetes), or decreased sensitivity of body tissues to insulin (type 2 diabetes). The most valid laboratory test to distinguish Type 1 from Type 2 diabetes is the C-peptide test, which detects the amount of insulin being produced in the body. Lack of insulin resistance, determined by a glucose tolerance test, would also be suggestive of Type 1.


Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ)

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) is also known by several other names, such as avascular or aseptic necrosis of the mandible/ maxilla, Jaw Death, Dead Jaw disease or Bisphossy Jaw. ONJ is a disfiguring and disabling condition where the jaw bones suffer literal bone death through infection and rotting. ONJ develops when the jaw fails to heal after minor trauma such as a tooth extraction that results in bone exposure. Causes of ONJ include exposure to bisphosphonates such as used in cancer treatment or osteoperosis medication such as Fosamax, Bonivel, or Actonel.

Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH)

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs when a newborn's circulation system does not adapt to breathing outside the womb. While a fetus is in the womb, it gets its oxygen from its mother's placenta through the umbilical cords, so the lungs need little blood supply. There is high blood pressure in the lungs, so blood in the pulmonary artery is sent away from the lungs to the other organs through a fetal blood vessel, called the ductus arteriosus.

When a baby is born and takes its first breaths, the blood pressure in their lungs falls and there is an increased blood flow to the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. The blood is then returned to the heart and pumped back out to the body. The ductus arteriosus constricts and permanently closes in the first day of life. However, in babies with PPHN, the pressure in the lungs remains high and the ductus arterious remains open, allowing blood to be directed away from the lungs.

PPHN is a rare, but life-threatening condition. It occurs most often in full-term or post-term babies who have had a difficult birth, or conditions such as infection or birth asphyxia, in which a baby receives an inadequate amount of oxygen during delivery.

Rhabdomyolysis

Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of skeletal muscle due to injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. The principal result of this process is acute renal failure due to accumulation of muscle breakdown products in the bloodstream, several of which are injurous to the kidney. Treatment is with intravenous fluids, and dialysis if necessary.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and life-threatening condition. It is thought to be a hypersensitivity complex affecting the skin and the mucous membranes. SJS has been classified as a severe expression of erythema multiforme (EM), and is sometimes referred to as erythema multiforme major. This terminology is not consistent; medical texts often distinguish between causes of SJS, referring to drug induced syndrome as SJS and applying the term erythema multiforme to viral etiology.

Stroke

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is an acute neurologic injury whereby the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted. Stroke can also be said to be a syndrome of sudden loss of neuronal function due to disturbance in cerebral perfusion. This disturbance in perfusion is commonly on the arterial side of the circulation, but can be on the venous side.

The part of the brain with disturbed perfusion can no longer receive adequate oxygen carried by the blood; brain cells are therefore damaged or die, impairing function from that part of the brain. Stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurologic damage or even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated. It is the third leading cause of death and adult disability in the US and industrialized European nations. On average, a stroke occurs every 45 seconds and someone dies every 3 minutes. Of every 5 deaths from stroke, 2 occur in men and 3 in women.

Risk factors include advanced age, hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke.

The term "brain attack" is starting to come into use in the United States for stroke, just as the term "heart attack" is used for myocardial infarction, where a cutoff of blood causes necrosis to the tissue of the heart. Many hospitals have "brain attack" teams within their neurology departments specifically for swift treatment of stroke

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Diseases
  Acanthamoeba keratitis |   Asbestosis |   Clostridium difficile Infections |   Heart Attacks |   Heart Valve Disease |   Hepatitis |   Juvenile Diabetes |   Mesothelioma |   Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) |   Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH) |   Popcorn Workers Lung (Bronchiolitis Obliterans) |   Rhabdomyolysis |   Sarcoidosis |   Shoulder Surgery and Pain Pump |   Stevens Johnson Syndrome |   Stroke |   Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis |   Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) |
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